Identify how sound are made, associating them with vibration
The world is full of sound! There are many different types of sound and they're everywhere too! Pause for a moment and listen. What can you hear?
TASK: Write down the sounds that you can hear. You may be able to hear things close to you; your own breathing perhaps? If you concentrate you may also be able to hear sounds further away: bird song... traffic... neighbours arguing over whose turn it is to take the bin out...
Sounds are made by vibration.
The vibration also makes the air around the object vibrate.
The air vibrations enter your ear and you hear them as sounds, like this:
OBJECT VIBRATES --> AIR VIBRATES --> YOUR EAR DRUM VIBRATES (and you hear the sound)
Your ear drum is the part of the ear that picks up sound vibrations (sometimes called sound waves).
An important part of this process is AIR. Without the air for the vibration to pass through we would hear nothing (we wouldn't be able to breathe either!). This is why there is no sound in space - there is no air for the sound vibrations to travel through (because this would make movies like Star Wars far less exciting movie-makers often choose to ignore this fact!).
If something is making a sound part of it is always vibrating in some way. Of course, not all sound vibrations are the same otherwise everything would sound exactly the same - the purring of a cat would sound the same as the brakes on a bus! Sound vibrations can be different sizes (and speeds). Take a look at the pictures below. Which do you think would create the largest sound vibrations - the falling feather or the explosion?
The explosion would create larger sound vibrations - it would be louder (in case you hadn't guessed!). We cannot always see sound vibrations but, as we know, if something is making a sound, all or part of it is vibrating. If we could see sound vibrations this is what they might look like:
From the shapes in the examples you might be able to see why sound vibrations are also known as sound waves. If you need more information there is (as ever) an excellent BBC Bitesize video and quiz.
TASK: Draw and label a diagram showing how sound vibrations are created and travel to the ear. Something like this:
The labels you will need are: OBJECT VIBRATES, AIR VIBRATES, EAR and SOUND VIBRATION (plus any more that you can think of). Remember to think about the size and shape of the sound vibration created (the crash above creates a large vibration). Look back at the music examples above to help you. Make your work as detailed as possible and please do share the result for the Home Learning Gallery.
Compare and group materials together, depending on whether they are solids, liquids or gases
Take a look around you. As you can see, not everything is the same...
These photographs show examples of solids, liquids and gases.
Solids, liquids and gases are called the three states of matter.
Look at the photographs again. Which items do you think are solid, liquid or gas? Do some photographs show more than one state of matter? (CLUE: Yes! Steam may be a gas but if the kettle was a gas too it wouldn't be able to contain the water (liquid) and it would just drift away!).
TASK 1: Make a list of examples of solids, liquids and gases. You could think about examples at home.
As ever, there is a useful BBC Bitesize video which will give you more detail about the states of matter (there's a short quiz too). In addition, from 21st April BBC iPlayer will have a TV episode which you might find of interest.
TASK 2: How do you know if something is a solid, liquid or a gas? What does a liquid do that a solid doesn't, for example? Write down what you think are the properties of solids, liquids and gases. A dictionary could be of help as would at least one of the links above...
Observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled
Take a moment to look back at the writing above. You should now know that there are three states of matter:
solid liquid gas
These states of matter are all around us. Have a look at this BBC Bitesize clip (and enjoy its groovy soundtrack!).
How many different examples of the three states of matter can you spot? There may be more than one example on screen at the same time (look at the cookies and milk above, for example). You could write them in your book under the headings Solid, Liquid and Gas.
Take a look at the photographs below. How would you best describe these states of matter? Are they solid, liquid or gas?
Look at the chocolate. What is causing it to melt? The lava in the picture on the left is rock, but here it is bubbling. How can rock bubble? The answer (if you haven't guessed already) is heat. Some materials will change their state when they are heated (they get hot) or are cooled (they get cold). The lava in the pictures is extremely hot rock, so hot it flows like liquid. However, after it cools it becomes a solid...
Glass is also made by changing states of matter using heating and cooling. You can see an example of the process of glass making on this BBC video (Warning: don't try this at home!).
TASK: In your book record any materials that you can think of whose state of matter can be changed by heating or cooling. If you're finding that a little tricky use the information on this page, including the video clips. Here are two examples to help you which you could also use:
BBC Bitesize have a lesson which may be of interest too. You can find it here.
Observe that some materials change state when they are heated or cooled and research the temperature at which this happens in °C
As we know, some materials can change their state of matter through heating or cooling. Heat can melt a solid, making it liquid (remember the lava above?) while cooling can freeze a liquid into a solid (think about ice cream). Water is an excellent example of this. In these photographs you can see water in two different states of matter:
If ice (a solid) is heated, it changes into water (a liquid). This, as you will no doubt guess, is called melting.
Materials melt at different temperatures. The rock further up this page needs to be at an extremely high temperature before it becomes anything like a liquid (think about the glass making too - you can refresh your memory here).
The melting point of ice is far lower than glass.
Ice melts at 0 degrees Celcius (0°C).
Glass melts at 1,100°C!
Glass has a higher melting point than ice (which is useful; otherwise your windows would fall out shortly after the sun came up!). Metals also have a higher melting point than ice. Use this BBC video to discover the melting point of lead and copper.
Materials can have their state of matter changed in a different way too...
If water (a liquid) is cooled, it changes to ice (a solid). This change is called freezing.
Water freezes and becomes ice at 0°C (when the temperature rises above 0°C the ice starts to melt, of course). You can learn more with this BBC Bitesize video and quiz. Using the information on the Bitesize page can you discover the melting point of chocolate? Is it higher or lower than ice? Is it higher or lower than glass (you should probably be able to guess the answer to that!?).
You will notice that the video describes this process as a reversible change. This means that things can be changed back to how they were (think about a car reversing - it goes backwards). For example:
(but what happens if water (liquid) continues to be heated (think about what happens with a kettle)? We will be looking at this next)
While the change between water and ice can be reversible, some changes in state caused by heating and cooling cannot be changed back (if someone boils an egg can it be unboiled?). These are irreversible changes. Take a look at the photographs in the document below:
Can any of these States of Matter be reversed?
Look at the melting candle: can the wax be cooled and and made into another complete candle? Can lava become solid rock again? Can the steam be changed back into water by cooling? Do you think that all of these states have been caused by heating or cooling?
TASK: Log into your Purplemash account --> Science --> Materials --> Reverse Change and write down details about three materials whose state can be changed by heating and/or cooling. Say whether you think the change is reversible or irreversible. Water might be a good place to start...
Identify the part played by evaporation and condensation in the water cycle and associate the rate of evaporation with temperature/Describe and understand key aspects of the water cycle (Geography)
Take a look at the world. There's an awful lot of blue! Why is that?
Much of our planet is covered in water (about 71% of the Earth, in fact). Seas and oceans are not the only water on the Earth, of course. Take a look at the picture of the Earth in space. What are the areas of white? They have something to do with water too. You can find out more about the Earth's water with this NASA video and the poster below.
Water is vital to supporting all life on Earth. Without it, nothing would grow or survive. The water we use today has been around for millions of years! All water moves continuously and is recycled over and over again. This is called the Water Cycle.
The Water Cycle is the journey water takes as it moves from the land to the sky and back again. It follows a cycle of:
--> evaporation --> condensation -->
--> precipitation --> collection -->
This cycle is repeated continuously: collection --> evaporation --> condensation --> precipitation --> collection --> evaporation... and so on. Forever! Water goes around and around (which is why it is described as a cycle - think about a bicycle wheel). The Water Cycle looks a bit like this:
Let's have a closer look at each part of the Water Cycle:
Evaporation happens when warmth (heat) from the sun causes some water from the land, sea, lakes and rivers to turn to vapour (tiny droplets) and rise into the air. You can see a similar thing when the water in a kettle boils.
Water vapour in the air cools down and changes back into tiny drops of liquid water, forming clouds. You can sometimes see condensation (the cooling down of water vapour) indoors too...
You can learn more about evaporation and condensation on this BBC Bitesize page.
The clouds get heavy (they often appear dark; the more water vapour collects together, the harder it is for light to pass through the clouds). Water falls back to the ground in the form of rain or snow.
Rain water runs off the land and collects in lakes or rivers, which take it back to the sea. The cycle starts all over again...
Remember that temperature is important in the Water Cycle - heating causes evaporation and cooling causes condensation. Temperature can change the water's state of matter. This change is a reversible process (water (liquid) --> water vapour (gas) --> water (liquid) and so on).
TASK: Draw and label the Water Cycle (you could use the picture further up this page to help you). Your illustration will need labels for evaporation, condensation, precipitation and collection. Don't forget to describe what these words mean too.
Construct and interpret food chains, identifying producers, predators and prey
A food chain shows what eats what. Most food chains begin with a plant (the producer) which gets its energy from the sun. Like here, for example:
Notice the arrows on the picture above. The arrow means "goes into" or "is eaten by". On this food chain you can see that the Flower is eaten by the Snail which is eaten by the Frog which is eaten by the Fox.
The direction of the arrow is very important (if your arrows are pointing the wrong way your food chain will be telling people such things as: foxes are eaten by frogs, who then get eaten by snails, before the snails themselves are preyed upon by deadly flowers! Which isn't quite right...)
A living thing which eats other plants or animals is called a consumer. Look again at the food chain above. Who are the consumers in the chain? (CLUE: It's not the flower!) Here is an example of a food chain showing consumers:
The Producer - Always starts a food chain. It's something that makes its own food.
The Consumer - A living thing which eats other plants or animals.
On the picture below the grass (making its own food from sunlight) is the producer, while the hare and the lion are both consumers (the hare eats the grass, the lion eats the hare). Find out more on this BBC Bitesize video.
There are two more words that we need to know: predator and prey.
A predator is an animal that eats other animals.
Look again at the first food chain with the Flower, the Snail, the Frog and the Fox. Which of those creatures are predators?
The animals that predators eat are called prey.
Once again, using the first food chain, can you work out which creature would be the prey of the Fox? Which would be the prey of the Frog?
TASK: In your book record your own food chains. They could include animals from other countries. Be sure to include their name and label them as producers and consumers (as we know, the food chain will always begin with a producer). Remember that the arrow means "is eaten by". Make sure you have the arrows pointing in the correct direction!
Describing the simple functions and basic parts of the Digestive System in humans
Food is your body's fuel. If you're doing it right, when you're eating the first thing food meets is your mouth where the teeth get to work... but then what happens to it? There must be some way that the food is used and digested by the body. There is: the Digestive System! How lucky is that? This gives you an idea of what that looks like...
Quite a lot happens to your food after you get it into your mouth and the Digestive System can be a bit complicated. Luckily BBC Bitesize are here to save the day with these excellent videos:
and, best of all,
Just click on the titles to go straight to the videos!
Feeling confident? Try to draw (and label) the diagram below. Not sure if you've got all of the labels? You'll find the missing words hidden below. If you think that was easy, copy and complete the sentences too. (If you would prefer to print them use the link below)
Identifying types of teeth and their functions
We have already looked at the different types of teeth but can you remember their names and which is which?
Premolars, canines, molars and incisors (there's a clue!) all have different jobs but what are they? Can't remember? This BBC Bitesize video might help. (You might like to draw this picture but if you want to print it you can use the link below)