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Ruswarp Church of England Primary School Think for Yourself and Act for Others

Spelling

The re- prefix

Prefixes are a group of letters added to the beginning of root words (if you need a reminder, look down this page). Prefixes often change the meaning of the word. For example:

 

play

re + play = replay

 

Prefixes can usually be added to the beginning of words without any changes to the spelling of the root word (play remains the same in the example above). If you haven't already, you can find out more about prefixes with this BBC video and quiz.

 

 

Re-“ means “again” or “back”. For example:

 

Tom filled the tin of paint.

After the accident Tom refilled the tin of paint.

 

 

There are many words which include the re- prefix. Can you think of any more?

 

rewrite     restore     retake     replay     repaint     restart     redo     rewind

 

This American YouTube video may help you to find further examples (remember: always ask an adult before you access YouTube).

 

 

 

TASK: Can you spot the possible re- words in the list below? Remember, re- means again or back (you can’t just randomly put the re- prefix on to the front of words! For example, there is no such thing as a resausage!).

The mis- prefix

As we should now know from the prefixes un- and dis- below, prefixes are a group of letters added to the beginning of root words. These prefixes often change the meaning of the word. For example:

 

behave

mis + behave = misbehave

 

Although they change the meaning, most prefixes can usually be added to the beginning of words without any changes to the spelling of the root word (notice that behave remained the same). There are quite a few prefixes (sub-re-dis-, un-, etc...) and, if you haven't already, you can find out more about some of these with this BBC video and quiz. (Does this all sound very familiar? No? then look a little further down this page...)

 

 

Here we are going to look at the mis- prefix. "Mis-" means "negative" or "wrong". When the mis- prefix is added to the front of root words, it gives a negative meaning (dis- and un- have a similar effect on root words). For example, you can have good fortune (such as finding 10p in the bottom of your bag) or misfortune (losing the 10p that you were sure was in the bottom of your bag a minute ago!).

 

Here is another example:

 

Tom heard the advice about the dangers of cliffs.

David misheard the advice about the dangers of cliffs.

 

 

There are many words which include the mis- prefix:

 

mistake     mistaken     misguide     misfire     miscalculate     misplace     mislead     misinform

 

Can you think of any more? Remember: the root word should make sense when the mis- prefix is removed (so a word like missile is not an example of the mis- prefix. Is there such a thing as a sile?).

 

TASK: Take a look at the sentences below. Write down the mis- words which you think are missing (you do not need to write the whole sentence, the words are the important part here). 

The dis- prefix

As we know from the un- prefix below, prefixes are a group of letters added to the beginning of root words. These prefixes often change the meaning of the word. For example:

agree

dis + agree = disagree

 

Although they change the meaning, most prefixes can usually be added to the beginning of words without any changes to the spelling of the root word (you'll notice that agree remained the same). There are quite a few prefixes (sub-re-dis-mis-, etc...) and, if you haven't already, you can find out more about some of these with this BBC video and quiz.

 

 

Here we are going to focus on the dis- prefix. "Dis-" means "negative" or "reverse". When the dis- prefix is added to the front of root words, it gives the opposite meaning (mis- and un- have a similar effect on root words).

 

For example:

Colin liked sausages but Jodie disliked them. 

 

Which dis- word do you think is missing from the sentence below?

 

The magician made the rabbit ________________________. 

 

 

The magician made the rabbit disappear

(not explode as the picture might suggest!)

 

There are many words which include the dis- prefix:

 

disapprove    dislike    disable    disallow    disbelief    distrust

 

Can you think of any more? Remember: the root word should make sense when the dis- prefix is removed (so a word like disaster is not an example of the dis- prefix. An aster doesn't exist!).

 

TASK: Take a look at the sentences below. Write down the dis- words which you think are missing (you do not need to write the whole sentence, the words are the important part here). 

The un- prefix

Prefixes are a group of letters added to the beginning of root words. These prefixes often change the meaning of the word. For example:

happy

un + happy = unhappy

 

Luckily, although they change the meaning, most prefixes can usually be added to the beginning of words without any changes to the spelling of the root word (you'll notice that happy remained the same). 

There are quite a few prefixes (sub-, re-, dis-, mis-, etc...) and you can find out more about some of these with an ever-reliable BBC video and quiz.

 

 

Here we are going to focus on the un- prefix. "Un-" means "not". When the un- prefix is added to the front of root words, it gives the opposite meaning to nouns, adjectives and adverbs.  You can see this in the examples above (unhappy means "not happy" and untidy means "not tidy"). 

 

Look at this sentence:

 

Tom liked the door to be locked but Peter left it _____________.

 

Which word is missing? (CLUE: It's a word that will begin with the prefix un-!) 

If you're not certain look at the sentence again and try to find a word that you could add the prefix un- to. Does Tom liked the door to be locked but Peter left it undoor make sense? What about unPeter? How about unlocked

 

Tom liked the door to be locked but Peter left it unlocked.

 

Remember that the un- prefix is going to change the root word to its opposite meaning. Unlocked makes sense here. Notice also how the spelling of the root word locked has not changed (except for the un- prefix being added, obviously!):

 

locked

un + locked = unlocked

 

TASK: Take a look at the sentences below. Write down the un- words which you think are missing (you do not need to write the whole sentence, the words are the important part here). 

The "u" sound spelt "ou"

 

The sound 'uh' is spelt 'ou' in some words. For example:

 

country     cousin     touch

 

Can you think of any more examples?  What might the missing ou words be in the sentences below?

 

Someone who is not old is ____________.  

If you ____________ six you get twelve.

France, Germany and Scotland are all different ___________________. 

 

(ANSWERS: young, double and countries)

 

This BBC Bitesize video (and quiz) may help you to think of more examples of the "uh" sound spelt "ou":

 

 

You will notice that the first character uses a dictionary to check his spelling - an excellent idea as there isn't really one particular rule for u spelt ou words. The best thing to do is to try and learn them. 

 

TASK: The documents below contain some familiar u spelt ou words. Look at one of the word lists for a certain length of time (30 seconds, 1 minute...) then cover it up. How many words from the list can you remember and write down (with the correct spelling!)?  Try this more than once. Can you improve on your score? Can you get a better score but use less time?

Some of these words can be quite tricky to remember. However, Nessy (an American company) may be able to lend a hand with the help of a catchy tune! You can find it on their YouTube page (remember: always ask an adult before you access YouTube).

 

Words with the "ai"/"ay"/"ei" sound spelt ei, eigh or ey

The letter patterns ei, eigh and ey often make a long a sound (say the word "game"  - it's that sort of "ai" sound). Examples would include:

reins          eight          grey

 

Can you think of any more examples? The noise a horse might make perhaps? Or the vehicle which is the favourite transport of Santa Claus?   Or the creatures who pull that transport along? 

 

There are quite a few examples but there isn't really one simple rule which will help you to remember which spelling is which.  This is partly because the words come from a mixture of places such as Old English, French and Dutch!  The best thing to do is to learn the words. Luckily, there are one or two things to help you do just that...

 

One of them is the Purplemash game below. It may seem rather easy but it's also quite useful. Use the timer - how quickly can you complete it?  Can you complete the quiz once again in an even shorter time?   You can find the quiz by logging into your Purplemash account --> English --> SPAG --> Spelling Resources --> Year 3 --> Autumn 1 --> Y3 AUT1 WK3 - Quiz

 

TASK: If you're feeling confident try the tasks below. You can copy the sentences into your book or print the questions if you prefer (Year 3 should be able to complete questions 1 to 5 at least. Question 9 might need a bit of thought - or a dictionary!). The wordsearch is an optional extra which you may wish to have a go at.

Endings which sound like "shun" 

The 'shun' sound can be spelt in three different ways. Which one you use depends on the last letter or letters of the root word.

 

If the root word ends with 'c' or 'cs' use the -cian suffix:

 

magic - magician

music - musician

mathematics - mathematician

 

(If you look at these words an easy way to remember the correct ending is: they're often jobs that people do!)

 

When the root word ends with 'd' or 'se' the suffix used is usually -sion:

 

expand - expansion

tense - tension

 

If the root word ends with 't' or 'te' use -tion:

invent - invention

create - creation

 

Can you think of any more examples? You could test your knowledge with this short BBC Bitesize quiz:

The suffix -ssion

The suffix –ssion means ‘the result of’. For example:

impression

means "the result of impressing"

 

discussion

means "the result of discussing"

 

The suffix -ssion is used when the root word ends in -ss or -mit.

 

However, things can sometimes be a little tricky because many verbs need to change their ending before the suffix -ssion is added.

 

discuss + ssion = discussion

omit + ssionomission

 

 

If a word ends in -ss remove the -ss, add –ssion.

If the word ends in -mit you must drop the -t from -mit before adding  -ssion.

 

TASK: In your book try adding the suffix -ssion to these root words:

discuss (that should be quite easy!)       confess        transmit        emit        obsess        permit

The suffix -ation

As we know, suffixes are letters fixed to the end of a word to change its meaning. For example:

 

adore --> adoration                     sense --> sensation

 

Adding the suffix -ation to verbs creates nouns. (Can't remember what nouns and verbs are? Click on the words for a quick reminder)

Look again at the examples above. Do you notice how the spelling of the word changed when the suffix -ation was added?

This is because, if the word ends with ne, ve or re, we remove the e then add -ation.   For example:

 

prepare --> preparation      admire --> admiration

 

Not all words will need to lose a letter. Inform doesn't end in ne, ve or re so it just becomes information.

Try adding the suffix -ation to these words:

 

limit          decorate          vibrate          donate          create

 

You can test your knowledge (and enjoy a helpful video) by going here.

The Suffixes -ing, -ed, -er and -est

 

suffix is a string of letters that go at the end of a root word, changing or adding to its meaning. Sometimes these letters also change the original word's spelling. You can remind yourself of suffixes with this BBC Bitesize video (there are some quizzes too).

 

 

You will notice on the example above when the -ed suffix is added to destroy the spelling of the root word doesn't change:

destroy

destroy + ed = destroyed

 

However, this is not always the case. Sometimes the root word may need changing slightly. For example:

 

shop

shop + ing = shopping

 

You will notice here that the p in shop needed to be doubled as the -ing suffix was added. This can be a little tricky to remember. This may help:

 

1. For words ending in two consonants just add the suffix.

 

tall + er = taller

tall + est = tallest

talk + ing = talking

 

2. Any words ending with a short vowel sound followed by a consonant, such as 'shop', should have the last letter doubled before adding the suffix. 

pop + ing = popping

thin + est = thinnest

shop + er = shopper

 

3. For words that end in a consonant followed by an 'e' (e.g. 'hope') the 'e' must be removed before adding the suffix.

 

hope + ing = hoping

cope + ing = coping

slope + ing = sloping

 

And, as an additional rule worth remembering...

 

4. If the word ends in a consonant followed by a 'y', then you change the 'y' into an 'i'. For example, adding the suffix 'er' to 'cry' gives us 'crier'.

The exception to this rule is to avoid double 'i', when adding the suffix 'ing', keep using the 'y', so 'cry' becomes 'crying'.

 

You can find examples of these suffix rules on this BBC Bitesize video.

 

 

TASK: Feeling confident? Try the quick questions below. You can either write the answers in your book or print the document if you prefer.

The Suffix - ous

 

suffix is a letter or a group of letters that can be added to the end of a word to change its meaning.  Adding the suffix -ous turns a noun into an adjective. The -ous suffix means "full of". For example:

 

Dangerous means full of danger

Cautious means full of caution

 

 

There are a couple of points to remember when adding -ous to words... 

 

When you add -ous to a word ending with e, drop the e.

Adventure becomes adventurous

 

When you add -ous to a word ending in y, replace the y with i.

Fury becomes furious

 

When you add -ous to a word that ends with our, our becomes or, then add -ous.

Humour becomes humorous

 

Head over to this BBC Bitesize video and quiz for more details.

 

 

It is worth knowing that there can be some exceptions. For example: 

 

When you add -ous to a word ending with e, drop the e. However, in some cases a final e of the root word must be kept if the g sound is to be kept. For example:

Courage becomes courageous

Outrage becomes outrageous

 

If there is an i sound before the -ous ending it is usually spelt with an i...

 

serious      obvious     curious

 

...but some words are spelt with an e. For example:

 

hideous     courteous     spontaneous     

 

TASK: Use the information above to help you with the -ous endings in the document below.

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